The Kawasaki Ki-61 Hien (飛燕, "flying swallow") was a Japanese World War II fighter aircraft used by the Imperial Japanese Army Air Force. The first encounter reports claimed Ki-61s were Messerschmitt Bf 109s: further reports claimed that the new aircraft was an Italian design, which led to the Allied reporting name of "Tony", assigned by the United States War Department. The Japanese Army designation was "Army Type 3 Fighter" (三式戦闘機). It was the only mass-produced Japanese fighter of the war to use a liquid-cooled inline V engine. Over 3,000 Ki-61s were produced, first initially prototypes have seen action over Yokohama during the Halsey-Doolittle Raid on 18 April 1942, and continuing to fly combat missions throughout the war.
Difficulties with engine supply towards the end of the war led to the design being modified to use a radial engine, resulting in production of the Kawasaki Ki-100.
- Ethell, Jeffrey L. Aircraft of World War II. Glasgow: Collins/Jane's, 1995. ISBN 0-00-470849-0. Page 82
- Mondey, David. The Hamlyn Concise Guide to Axis Aircraft of World War II. London: Bounty Books, 2006. ISBN 0-7537-1460-4. Page 144
- Bueschel, Richard M. Kawasaki Ki.61/Ki.100 Hien in Japanese Army Air Force Service, Aircam Aviation Series No.21. Canterbury, Kent, UK: Osprey Publications Ltd, 1971. ISBN 0-85045-026-8. Pages 6 & 7
- http://www.ibiblio.org/hyperwar/AAF/rep/Doolittle/Report.html (Halsey-Doolittle Raid, April 1942)
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